6 000 000 jøder

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Rabbi Wise's Address, New York Times, 11. juni 1900
Encyclopedia Britannica 1902, sid 482
The Secret of Hebrew Words, sid 214, foto:Christus Rex Inc.
Reader´s Digest februari 1943, foto:Mike Smith
New York Times 25. mars 1906, foto:New York Times
New York Times 20. juli 1921, foto:New York Times
New York Post 1. juni 1933, foto:New York Times
San Fransisco Chronicle 19. oktober 1919, foto:San Fransisco Chronicle

6 000 000 jøder. Det er i de offisielle historiebøker og leksika slått fast at det nasjonalsosialistiske Tyskland mellom 1941 og 1944 myrdet 6 000 000 jøder, hovedsakelig i gasskammer, i det som i dag kalles Holocaust (sv: förintelsen, hebraisk: Shoa). Dette var et ledd i en offisiell kampanje som skulle utrydde alle jødene i Europa, på direkte ordre fra den nasjonalsosialistiske ledelsen i det Tredje Riket. Noen skriftlig ordre om noe sånt, er aldri blitt funnet. Tallet 6 000 000 er heller ikke bevist eller sannsynliggjort, verken på bakgrunn i undersøkelser av de tyske konsentrasjonsleirene, autentiske dokumenter, historisk forskning, arkeologiske utgravninger, vitner, "tilståelser" fra ledende personer fra det Tredje Riket eller demografiske kartlegginger. Likevel regnes tallet i dag som et faktum som man ikke behøver å bevise. Spesielt er dette tilfellet i Tyskland der det er forbundet med streng fengselsstraff å benekte, og også offentlig å betvile, at "6 millioner jøder ble utryddet av naziregimet". Dette er det eneste historiske spørsmål det er straffbart å ytre avvikende meninger om.

Innhold

Før første verdenskrig

  • 11. juni 1900 publiserte New York Times en artikkel som bar navnet Rabbi Wise's Address. Der kunne man lese: "there are 6,000,000 living, bleeding, suffering arguments in favor of Zionism". Rabbineren Stephen S. Wise var en ledende person i American Jewish Congress, født i Ungarn og sønn av rabbineren Joseph Hirsch Weisz. Familien flyttet til USA der faren Joseph ble rabbiner i Brooklyn. Artikkelen til Stephen S. Wise er den første kjente kilden hvor begrepet "6 000 000 jøder" er publisert.
  • På side 482 i opplaget av Encyclopedia Britannica fra 1902 står det å lese under rubrikken ANTI-SEMITISM: "While there are in Russia and Romania six millions of jews who are being systematically degraded, and who periodically overflow the western frontier, there will continue to be a jewish question in Europe;"
  • 27. november 1902 publiserte New York Times en artikkel med navn: PLEA FOR ZIONISM: "In answer I would say: Does Dr. Silverman represent the 6,000,000 jews in Russia, 300,000 in Roumania, and the 1,000,000 in Galicia?"
  • New York Times, 29. januar 1905: "END OF ZIONISM, MAYBE. Jewish Preacher´s View of Uprising in Russia. [...] He declared that a free and a happy Russia, with its 6,000,000 jews, would possibly mean the end of Zionism, since the abolition of the autocracy would practically eliminate the causes that brought Zionism into existence".
  • Dr. Paul Nathan´s View of Russian Massacre er overskrift på en artikkel i New York Times 25. mars 1906: "STARTLING reports of the condition and future of Russia´s 6,000,000 Jews were made on March 12 in Berlin to the annual meeting of the Central Jewish Relief League of Germany by Dr. Paul Nathan who has... [...] He left St. Petersburg with the firm conviction that the Russian Government´s studied policy for the "solution" of the jewish question is systematic and murderous extermination."
  • New York Times, 31. oktober 1911: "The 6,000,000 Jews of Russia are singled out for systematic oppression and for persecution due to process of law."
  • THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA 1911 The American Jewish Year Book 5672 September 23, 1911, to September 11, 1912 - sid 308: "Russia has since 1890 adopted a deliberate plan to expel or exterminate six millions of its people for no other reason than that they refuse to become members of the Greek Church, but prefer to remain Jews".

Første verdenskrig

  • New York Times, 2. desember 1914, tekst av Felix M. Warburg: "The American Jewish Releif Committee called into being at a conference of more then 100 national Jewish organizations which was held at Temple Emanu-El on Oct. 25 to consider the plight of more than 6,000,000 Jews who live within the war zone, ..." "The disaster, in which the whole world shares, falls with disproportionate weight upon the jewish people, more then nine millions of whom live in the countries at war and over six millions of these in the actual war zone in Poland, Galicia, and the whole Russian frontier."
  • New York Times, 14. januar 1915: "In the world today there are about 13,000,000 Jews, of whom more than 6,000,000 are in the very heart of the war zone."
  • New York Times, 28. februar 1916: "Nearly six millio Jews are ruined." he said "in the greatest moral and material misery".[1]
  • 1916, American Jewish Committee - The Jews in the Eastern War Zone (side 19): "Russia acquired the great bulk of her Jewish population through the partitions of Poland, from 1773 to 1795. Strongly medieval in outlook and organization as Russia was at that time, she treated the Jews with the exceptional harshness which [...] it into a penal settlement, where six million human beings guilty only of adherence to the Jewish faith are compelled to five out their lives in squalor and misery, in constant terror of massacre, subject to the caprice of police officials and a corrupt administration— in short, without legal right or social status."
  • New York Times, 18. oktober 1918: "Six Million Souls Will Need Help t Resume Normal Life When War Is Ended. [...] Committee of American Jews Lays Plans for the Greatest Humanitarian Task in History. [...] 6,000,000 Jews Need Help."

Bakgrunnen til tallet 6 000 000

Rabbiner Benjamin Blech, professor i Talmud ved Yeshiva University siden 1966, mener at det i jødedommen og det hebraiske språket finnes en mystikk rundt tall, tolkninger, ord og begrep. Blech er forfatter av boken The Secrets of Hebrew Words (1993) der han forklarer den mystikken som ligger i det skrevne ordet i gamle jødiske skrifter og meninger i tolkninger. Akkurat som det i latin ikke fantes noen siffer, så ble isteden bokstaver brukt som symbol for tall og mengde. På latin skrives eksempelvis sifferet ti med bokstaven X. Samme prinsipp praktiseres i de gamle jødiske skriftene Torah og Talmud, der siffer skrives med bokstaver. Den hebraiske bokstaven ("vav") symbolserer mange ting, blant annet sifferet 6, men også mennesket. Rabbiner Blech skriver på side 214: ''The Hebrew word for "ye shall return" (TaShuVu), seems to be spelled incorrectly. Grammatically it requires another ו (vav). It ought to read (TaShUVu). Why is it lacking the letter ו (vav), which stands for 6? ...(without the "vav") is a prediction to the jewish people of ultimate return to their national homeland.

Bokstaven (vav) er den sjette i det hebraiske alfabetet. Bokstaven seks symboliserer også mennesket. Den jødiske skriften Torah motsvarer Bibelens gamle Mosebøker og i Første

Mosebok (Genisis 1) kan vi lese:

Da sa Gud: «La oss skape mennesker i vårt bilde, som et avbilde av oss! Gud skapte mennesket i sitt bilde, i Guds bilde skapte han det, til mann og kvinne skapte han dem. [...] Gud så på alt det han hadde gjort, og se, det var overmåte godt. Og det ble kveld, og det ble morgen, sjette dag.

Tallet 6 og dets betydning

Mennesket ble skapt på den sjette dagen ifølge den kristne Bibelen og den jødiske Torah, og (vav), som er den sjette bokstaven, symbolserer også mennesket. Det hviler altså en mystikk og symbolisme i siffer og bokstaver dg disse har en iboende kraft i ulike kombinasjoner. Eksempel: "Because of this system of assigning numerical values to letters, every word has a numerical value. For example, the word Torah (Tav-Vav-Reish-Hei) has the numerical value 611 (400+6+200+5). There is an entire discipline of Jewish mysticism known as Gematria that is devoted to finding hidden meanings in the numerical values of words. For example, the number 18 is very significant, because it is the numerical value of the word Chai, meaning life. Donations to Jewish charities are routinely made in denominations of 18 for that reason."

Når det jødiske folk forlot fangenskapet i Egypt var de ifølge skriftene 600 000 og Torah består av 600 000 bokstaver. Rabbiner Blech forklarer videre:

" TaShuVU in numbers adds up to 708: tav=400, shin=300, vei=2, vey=6. When we write the year, we ignore the millennia. In 1948 on the secular calendar, we witnessed the miracle of Jewish return to Israel. On the Hebrew calendar it was the year 3708. That was the year predicted by the incomplete word (TaShuVu), you shall return. We did return, lacking 6 – an all important 6 million of our people who perished in the holocaust. Yet the fulfillment of the prediction of return in precisely that year implied by the gematria of TaShuVU gives us firm hope that the words of the prophets for Final Redemption will come true as well."

Davidstjernen har seks spisser som blir et hexagon når de foldes inn. De seks vingene symboliserer også Mishnah, grunnlaget for det som idag kalles Talmud. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum i Washington har en permanent utstilling med fotografier fra Holocaust. Arealet er på 36 000 fot - 6 x 6 = 36. Når det jødiske folket hadde forlatt Egypt lot Gud omgi dem med seks skyer. Det hebraiske ordet Israel kan leses som et akronym for Yesh Shishim Ribo Otiot LaTorah - "Torah består av 600 000 bokstaver". De konsentrasjonesleirene der jødene skal ha blitt utryddet er seks i tallet: Auschwitz, Majdanek, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor og Chelmno.

Ifølge Kabbala, som er en form for jødisk mystikk som forsøker å tolke naturens og guddommens ordning i et religiøst-filosofisk system, har livets tre ti Sephiroth. En Sepiroth er en emanasjon eller en utstråling hvor Gud åpenbarer og viser seg. Alle ti Sepiroth forklarer den fysiske og metafysiske verden. Kabbala har en sentral rolle hos ortodokse jøder der de to Sepiroth anses for å være den perfekte tallet for Gud selv. Ti ganger (Gud) seks (mennesket) for de 600 000 som forlot Egypt blir 6 000 000.

Mellomkrigstiden

  • New York Times, 8. september 1919: "Mass Meeting Hears That 127,000 Jews Have Been Killed and 6,000,000 Are in Peril. [...] The President reported that there were 3,000,000 Jews in Ukrainia and a like number in Poland, all of whom were in need of assistance from America. [...] This fact that the population of 6,000,000 souls in Ukrainia and in Poland have recived notice through action and by word that they are going to be completely exterminated - this fact stands before the whole world as the paramount issue of the present day."
  • San Fransisco Chronicle, 19. oktober 1919, artikkel forfattet av Nathan Straus: "6.000.000 JEWS IN BREAD LINE, STRAUS WRITES. More Than Third of Entire Race in World Reduced to Despair in Europe. [...] Six million Jews, out of the 16.000.000 in the world, or considerably more than a third of the entire Jewish race, are today standing in bread lines or getting the soup on which they live from the soup kitchens of the Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for Jewish War Sufferers."
  • American Hebrew, 31. oktober 1919 - artikkel av Martin Glynn: "From across the sea six million men and women call to us for help... [...] ...as naturally would reside in six million human beings. ...when six million human beings are being whirled toward the grave by a cruel and relentless fate... [...] In this threatened holocaust of human life...[...] ...in the name of the humanity of Moses to six million famished men and women... [...] Six million men and women are dying..."
  • The Evening Tribune Providence, 31. oktober 1919, side 11: "In the midst of our campaign for the relief of the six million Jews of Eastern Europe, we are not unmindful of the merits of other activities close at hand."
  • New York Times, 21. april 1920: "In Europe there are today more than 5,000,000 Jews who are starving or on..."
  • New York Times, 7. mai 1920: "The fund for Jewish war sufferers in Central and eastern Europe, where six million face horrifying conditions of famine..."
  • New York Times, 20. juli 1921: "Russia´s 6,000,000 Jews are facing extermination by massacre."
  • The Montreal Gazette, 28. desember 1931, side 25: "SIX MILLION JEWS FACE STARVATION. [...] FEARS CRISIS AT HAND. [...] Six million Jews in Eastern Europe face starvation, and even worse, during the coming winter."
  • New York Times, 29. mars 1933: "It is now active in relief and reconstructive work in Eastern Europe where 6,000,000 Jews are involved."
  • New York Times, 8. september 1935: "The preliminary session of the first world conference of the Federation of Polish Jews being attended by sixty delegates from eighteen countries representing 6,000,000 Jews was held in the East End of London tonight."
  • The Montreal Gazette, 8. august 1936, side 5: "Deletages of 32 Nations Represent Six Million Hebrews."
  • New York Times, 9. januar 1938: "PERSECUTED JEWS SENN ON INCREASE [...] 6,000,000 victims noted. [...] Five to six million in all are today the victims of governmental anti-Semitism..."
  • New York Times, 23. februar 1938: "A depressing picture of 6,000,000 Jews in Central Europe deprived of protection or economic opportunities, slowly dying of starvation, all hope gone,..."
  • Turtle Mountain Star, Rolla, North Dakota, 6.oktober 1938: "Five or six million Jews, uproted by dictatorship and tossed about by economic storms, may have to depend upon the development of the Holy Land, under British mandate, as a solution to their difficulties. But they face the hostility of the Arabs living there, whose economic and religious interests conflict with theirs. [...] ...protects the settlers from the raiding Arabs. [...] The Arabs Are Coming! [...] The dreaded Mohammedan have been sighted by a neighbor settler..."
  • The Pittsburgh Press, 15. januar 1939, side 14: ""Jewish leadership," said Dr. Silver, national chairman of the United Palestine Appeal, "should make it unmistakable clear to all the governments of Europe that it is impossible to evacuate six million Jews; that there are no countries prepared to receive them,..."
  • New York Times, 15. januar 1939: "Rabbi Silver wanted assistance to Jewish emigration safeguarded so that European governments would realize that "it is possible to evacuate 6,000,000 Jews""
  • The Evening Independent, 22. februar 1939, side 1: "6,000,000 Helpless. Lew pointed out that there are six million Jews in Europe today fighting desperately against intolerance and despair. For them the support of the united appeal is crucial, he said."

Andre verdenskrig

  • The Palm Beach Post, 25. juni 1940: "6,000,000 Jews in Europe are doomed to destruction".
  • Reader´s Digest, februar 1943 i en artikkel av Ben Hecht på side 108: "Of these 6,000,000 Jews almost a third have already been massacred by Germans, Rumanians and Hungarians..."
  • New York Times, 2. mars 1943: "...appalling is the fact that those who proclaim the Four Freedoms have so far done very little to secure even the freedom to live for 6,000,000 of their Jewish fellow men by readiness to rescue those who might still escape Nazi torture and butchery."
  • New York Times, 17. februar 1945: "...and that only 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 of Europe´s 6,000,000 Jews were now left on the Continent."
  • New York Times, 2. mai 1945: "...Attorney of Kings County, N.Y., estimated that only 1,000,000 of 6,000,000 Jews in Europe in 1939 were still alive."
  • The Pittsburgh Press, 13. mai 1945, side 1: "Nazis Destroy Six Million Jews. [...] Of the eight million Jews living in Germany and German occupied countries before the war, 6,200,000 have died from either execution, cruel treatment or starvation, according to latest figures compiled by Jewish welfare organisations here."
  • New York Times, 20. mai 1945: "More than six million of them have been liberated, and..."
  • Lewiston Evening Journal 4. oktober 1946, side 1: "A special memorial service will be conducted for members of the congregation who gave their lives in the war, and in conjunction with this, a service will be held memorizing the six million Jews who died in Europe."

I andre sammenhenger

Man finner gjennom hele 1900-tallet artikler og annonser som refererer til sifferene 6 000 000 jøder i ulike sammenhenger. Det er ikke bare tallet 6 000 000 jøder men en del andre forekommer også, men det er det vanligste talles som angis. I en annonse fra United Jewish Campaign of New York oppfordret man i New York Times, 21. april 1926 å donere penger til: "...millions of Jews are trapped in Europe and there is no hope..." Målsatt sum for innsamlingskampanjen var 6 000 000 dollar.

  • New York Times, 1. mai 1920 (annonse fra Joint Distribution Committee): "Just Another Drive, but the Lives of 6,000,000 Human Beings Wait Upon the Answer."
  • New York Times, 3. mai 1920 (annonse fra Joint Distribution Committee): "Your help is needed to save the lives of six million people in Eastern and Central Europe."
  • New York Times, 3. mai 1920: "It is estimated that more than five millions are actually starving or on the..."
  • New York Times, 5. mai 1920 (annonse fra Joint Distribution Committee): "THE APPEAL - To Save Six million Men and Women in Eastern Europe from Extermination by Hunger and Disease."
  • New York Times, 5. mai 1920 (annonse fra Greater New York Non-Sectarian Fund): "Six Million starving, fever-stricken sufferers in war-torn Europe appeal to us for..."

Holocaust

  • L'antisémitisme, son histoire et ses causes (1894), av Bernard Lazare: "C'était un dérivatif et, de temps en temps, rois, nobles ou bourgeois offraient à leurs esclaves un holocauste de Juifs".
  • New York Times, 7. mai 1899: "In such a square, we read, was once a mighty holocaust of Jews; beneath our feet, we are told, is a mass of human bones and cinders."[2]
  • New York Times, 16 mai 1903: "In Some Places Jews Managed to Defend Themselves [...] We charge the Russian Government with responsibility for the Kishineff massacre. We say it is steeped to the eyes in the guilt of this holocuast."[3]
  • St. John Daily Sun, 21. mai 1903, side 6: "RUSSIA´S CRIME. Slaughter og Jews Should Arouse All Christendom. [...] "This barbaric holocaust, which has taken place in a populous of one hundred and forty thousand inhabitants, appeals for redress, not to the civilized world; not to those professing the religion...[...]"[4]
  • New York Times, 10. november 1905: "Simon Wolf Asks How Long the Russian Holocaust Is to Continue. [...] Simon Wolf, ex-President of the B´Nai B´Rith, has sent [...] Mr Wolf is heading a movement to raise funds for the relief of the stricken Jews in Russia."[5]
  • New York Times 13. november 1905: "Hence the present massacre of thousands upon thousands of men, women and children. [...] This holocaust of Jews is but the culmination of the demand of the people for liberty."[6]
  • New York Times, 5. desember 1905: ""Terrible as has been the holocaust," said Mr. Matshall, "there is hope in the outlook. The Jew of Russia has learned the art of self defence. [...]""[7]
  • New York Times, 15. mai 1916: ""Justice to the little peoples, the small races, is the blessing God is going to send from the war´s holocaust of horror. Tomorrow the Jews will be free; [...]""[8]
  • New York Times, 29. oktober 1916: "Dr. Manges has been enabled not only to learn the disposition of such funds as have already been contributed, but has gained first-hand information as to the present needs to the Jewish problem in Europe, who has fallen under the blight of the world holocaust."[9]
  • New York Times, 24. september 1917: "We cannot help the men in the trenches or at the front, but the aged and infirm, the women, children, and babies at home must be saved if the Jewish race is to survive the terrible holocaust of the war."[10]
  • American Hebrew, 31. oktober 1919 - artikkel av Martin Glynn: "In this threatened holocaust of human life...[...] ...in the name of the humanity of Moses to six million famished men and women."
  • New York Times, 1. juni 1933, side 6: "Dr. Margoshes said he had received a letter from the poet at Zurich a few days ago, stating that she had "run away from the holocaust" and was destitute but perfectly safe."
  • New York Times, 31. mai 1936, side 14: "The petition, in expressing the opinion of enlightened Christian leadership in the United States, favoring a larger Jewish immigration into Palestine, stressed the intolerable sufferings of the millions of Jews in "the European holocaust"[...] Bold practical measures to save these unfortunate millions from total annihilation are now called for."

Utryddning

  • New York Times, 3. februar 1895: "RUSSIA'S JEWISH PROBLEM; THE RUSSIAN JEWS, EXTERMINATION OR EMANCIPATION?"[11]
  • New York Times, 19. juni 1903: "MASSACRE OF JEWS AVERTED. [...] ...namley that the Goverment had ordered the extermination of the Jews."[12]
  • Boston Evening Transcript, 13. mars 1906, side 9: ""Extermination of the Jews" [...] The anti-Jewish proclamation... [...] ...the position of Jews in Russia is horrible. [...] Dr. Nathan is convinced that the Government´s policy for solving the Jewish question is systematic extermination."[13]
  • Providence News, 14. mars 1906: "EX-MINISTERS PLOT MASSACRE OF THE JEWS. [...] The police prefect, M. Von Der Launitz. was asked to explain how it happened that the publication of the proclamation calling for the extermination of the Jews was printed in the official printing office attached to his department."[14]
  • New York Times, 1. august 1919: "REPORTS MASSACRE OF JEWS IN UKRAINE. [...] Ukrainian Judaism fears total extermination. [...] In all pogroms undoubtedly dozens of thousands have been massacred."[15]
  • New York Times, 25. oktober 1920: "MAGYAR WOULD CURB JEWS. [...] A presentation of the Jewish question in Hungary that has attracted wide republication... [...] ...what may be called the genius of the race is advancing toward its extermination."[16]
  • New York Times, 20. juli 1921: "Russia´s 6,000,000 Jews are facing extermination by massacre."[17]
  • Canadian Jewish Chronicle, 14. oktober 1921: "THE POGROM-IDEA REACHES CHICAGO. [...] Here at least, is concrete proof that the organization of the Ku Klux Klan has the extermination of Jews as a part of its program... [...] ARE THE JEWS A VANISHING RACE?"[18]
  • St. Joseph Gazette, 31. august 1929: "HARASSED JEWS PLEASD FOR HELP. Face extermination in Palestine,.. [...] ...northern Galilee faced the danger of extermination, stated an appeal..."[19]
  • Montreal Gazette, 20. desember 1930: "JEWISH STATUS IN RUSSIA AT STAKE. Extermination of Race Within Generation Is Seen."[20]
  • Canadian Jewish Chronicle, 12. januar 1934 "This specific point in the Nazi program, the extermination of the Jews, is the only clause that they will be able to fulfil."[21]

Bildegalleri

Se også kompletterende artikkel

Referanser

  1. New York Times - 28. februar 1916
  2. New York Times - 7 maj 1899
  3. New York Times - 16 maj 1903
  4. St. John Daily Sun - 21 maj 1903
  5. New York Times - 10 november 1905
  6. New York Times - 13 november 1905
  7. New York Times den 5 december 1905
  8. New York Times - 15 maj 1916
  9. New York Times - 29 oktober 1916
  10. New York Times - 24 september 1917
  11. New York Times - 3 februari 1895
  12. New York Times - 19 juni 1903
  13. Boston Evening Transcript den 13 mars 1906
  14. Providence News - 14 mars 1906
  15. New York Times - 1 augusti 1919
  16. New York Times - 25 oktober 1920
  17. New York Times - 10 juli 1921
  18. Canadian Jewish Chronicle - 14 oktober 1921 (sid 2)
  19. St. Joseph Gazette - 31 augusti 1929 (side 1)
  20. Montreal Gazette, 20. desember 1930 (side 7)
  21. Canadian Jewish Chronicle - 12. januar 1934 (side 3)

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